The Best Residing Environment Regents Review Guidebook 2020
Certain states in the U. Ring. require learners to take along with pass a good standardized test out in order to finish high school using a diploma. Should you live in your New York, you need to take together with pass some sort of standardized analyze called the Regents Exam in order to make your graduating high school diploma.
There are many individual Regents Exams, every single covering a different sort of subject area. If you want to get a school diploma during the state of New York (called a Regents Diploma), you will need to take as well as pass no less than one science Regents exam.
The very Living Atmosphere Regents Audit is one of 4 science examinations offered , and we’re here that will help you learn solutions to know to assist you to decide if taking the Living All-natural environment Regents test is the best choice for yourself.
In this full instructions on this exam, we’ll take care of the following:
- What the Being Environment Regents Exam will be
- Who is going to take the Living Environment Regents Exam
- You important information about the examination for rapid reference
- The main format on the exam
- Trial questions from the exam
- The particular topics and subtopics coated with the examination sections
There’s a bunch to cover the following, so allow us get going!
What Is the New York State (NYS) Living Surroundings Regents Exam?
The very Living All-natural environment Regents audit is at e of four science lessons that kids can take to satisfy the single discipline exam dependence on receiving either a community or a regents diploma. The Living Conditions Regents audit replaced often the Biology Regents Exam together with covers various topics along with categories concerning biology depending on the New York Status Core Programs.
To receive the Regents Degree or diploma with Innovative Designation, learners need to take as well as pass a couple science Regents exams: one life research exam and something physical research exam. The particular Living Setting exam could be the only everyday living science Regents exam made available, so if you choose to receive the Innovative Designation diploma, you’ll have to get and go the Living Environment audit.
In summary: this is one test that you simply can guess to meet your science exam requirement for anyone who is graduating using a regular Regents Diploma-but a person have to consider the Living Environment Regents Exam in case you are trying to get a high Designation degree.
Who are able to Take the Existing Environment Regents Exam?
Therefore , who can make Living Ecosystem Regents Test?
Any 9-12 grade Texas secondary the school student “all students who experience completed the particular course of study creating a Regents Examination” will take the Living Environment Regents Exam. Get another way, if you have ever completed the data that is biology assignment, you’re are usually take the evaluation.
This means that individuals both who have taken the biology lessons in school in addition to students that have learned materials independently by means of alternative implies are eligible to use the audit. Additionally , you can not be banned from taking test considering that you’ve acquired disciplinary challenges or couldn’t make Seeing that or Bull crap in your the field of biology classes. So long as your program record indicates that you’ve obtained the necessary classes, you should be happen to be take the quiz!
There may be one other prerequisite for taking the very Living Environment Regents test: you have to successfully complete 1200 minutes of laboratory encounter and deliver adequate prepared reports for any lab shop. Students who all meet the laboratory demand are eligible to take the examination! For most college students, this necessitie can be fulfilled by taking two to three science curriculums that have research laboratory components within high school.
Since you know what the actual exam is definitely and who all might gain from taking the item, let’s search into the biggest facts you need to comprehend before taking the exam!
Existing Environment Exam FAQs
To get started, we will give you a easy guide to one of the most essential a comparison of the Lifestyle Environment Regents Exam. Think of this like your are unfaithful sheet!
Exam appointments: The Existing Environment Regents Exam exists in The following year, June, and also August annually.
Who is going to take the assessment: Students in grades almost eight through 12 are eligible to have the Dwelling Environment Regents exam so long as they have secured the bare minimum number of recommended laboratory a lot of time and are allowed by a school boss.
Examination question formats: The Dwelling Environments exam tests your knowledge using a mix off multiple decision and available response issues.
Quiz sections: Often the exam includes five portions, or parts, labeled Area A, Portion B-1, Portion B-2, Area C, and Part N. Each area has the sticking with number of problems:
- Part Some sort of consists of 22 multiple decision questions.
- Part B-1 consists of tough luck multiple pick questions.
- Part B-2 consists of 10 multiple selection and open up response concerns.
- Part C consists of 17 clear response queries.
Part Debbie consists of 15 multiple pick and amenable response concerns.
Exam scoring: Exam takers must accomplish an overall credit report scoring of sixty-five in order to go the test.
Assessment length: Test takers are allowed a maximum of three working hours to complete the very Living Atmosphere exam, lacking specific period allotments for the individual parts of the test.
Now that you’re sure some speedy facts about how exam operates, let’s search a little more carefully at the examining format for doing it exam.
Living Setting Regents Quiz Testing File
Knowing what you should expect from the arrangement of a standardised test well before you actually take the assessment can really offer leg-up. Here is an overview on the format from the Living Surroundings Regents Assessment.
What amount of Questions Are There Per Internet sites?
The main Living Ecosystem Regents Test has 80 questions full, and these concerns are broken down up among the many five audit sections (Part A, Aspect B-1, Aspect B-2, Area C, and Part D).
Each section has the next number of questions:
|Examination Part||Volume of Questions|
|Element A||fifty multiple preference questions|
|Part B-1||thirteen multiple option questions|
|Area B-2||16 questions, mixture of multiple choice and open up response|
|Section C||seventeen-year-old open reply questions|
|Portion D||15 questions, combination multiple alternative and start response|
How Much Time Is normally Allotted For every Exam Spot?
Pupils taking the Located Environment Regents Exam are usually allotted two hours to accomplish the entire assessment –that’s three hours from the precious time that the examination proctor takes place the assessment.
But , unlike many other standardised tests, each section of often the Living Conditions Regents Assessment isn’t timed individually. Which can make it for you to know how to schedule yourself because you take the examination!
If you want to finish all 80 exam inquiries and have time to check your work just before time increased, you’ll want to invest no more than a couple of minutes on each exam concern. That will cause with a 10 minutes to examine and/or equipment questions you actually skipped at the same time.
Precisely how Is the Quiz Scored?
As a way to pass often the Living Surroundings Regents Examination, you need to achieve a score connected with 65. To secure with change, you need a report of 80.
But these scores shouldn’t indicate that you have answered 65% of the exam questions effectively, and they also do not get raw results. Rather, that passing report of 66 is a scaled credit score : this implies that you’ve effectively achieved the set finding out standards determined by the New York State Degree Department. Most of the time, you’ll finish up receiving even more points for answering more difficult questions effectively… hence often the scaled credit rating. (Also: body fat penalty regarding guessing. Hence don’t give any info blank! )
The big takeaway is this: your company’s exam credit report scoring isn’t good number of issues you solution correctly. You could potentially take the audit in April, and your good friend could take it in August, and also could solution a different quantity of questions effectively and both still obtain a passing score of sixty five on the exam. It all hinges on which inquiries you response correctly, and even there’s no reliable way to number that available while you’re taking the test.
Scaled scoring can be confusing, so if you want to learn more about how this specific scoring technique is applied for the particular Living All-natural environment Regents, overview this page within the New York State Education Department website.
Topics Included on the Located Environments Regents Exam
Since the Dwelling Environment Regents Exam needed the place in the Biology Regents Exam, the main five parts of the audit cover an array of major matters pertaining to the field of biology. These ideas are dependant upon Standard some of the Texas Common Major State Expectations and include seven “Key Ideas” encompassing scientific concepts, standards, and studies.
If you want to read more about the Lifestyle Environment Center Curriculum, which in turn determines everything that topics seem to be on the Regents Exam, check out New York’s State Learning Department site. But for these days, we’re going to provide you with a general introduction to what topics each Major Idea addresses.
Major Idea one: Living And Nonliving Factors
Important Idea 4 states in which, “Living the drinks are both much like and different coming from each other and from non-living things. inch
Put one other way, this Crucial Idea questions you to indicate what you be familiar with how experiencing and nonliving things make use of certain operations to stay alive and are not able to.
So , exactly what specific concepts fall under the following key option? Here’s a narrow your search of the guidelines you need to understand and be able to explain available for Key Suggestion 1 for the Living Conditions Regents Audit:
- Diversity associated with populations in ecosystems and even stability regarding ecosystems, which includes
- The best way populations usually are categorized according to the function they serve inside food world wide web (e. h. producers, customers, decomposers)
- Just how non-living surroundings and existing populations communicate to prepare a total environment
- How distinct species have each other down
- How disruptions in the quantities and sorts of species and/or environmental improvements can disturb ecosystem security
- Homes and functions of the human body at numerous organizational values (e. g. systems, damaged tissues, cells, organelles), which includes
- The human problems, respirative, the reproductive system, circulatory, together with excretory systems, as well as real human movement, coordination, and protection; how these types of systems interfere to perform the life span functions.
- The best way disruptions in a human system can cause disproportion in homeostasis
- The different kinds of cells on the human body and the various capabilities
- The framework of the unique variations of cells on the human body
- The exact functions executed by precise structures inside of cells, for example cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes, wireless membrane, vacuole, and core.
- The position of beneficiario molecules for cellular transmission
- The way in which one-celled microorganisms are able to function, specifically
- How the clusters present in a number of single-celled microorganisms cause them to react in a manner similar to the tissues and models found in multicellular organisms.
Key Concept 2: Inherited genes and GENETIC MATERIAL
Crucial Idea a couple of states, “Organisms inherit innate information in a range of ways that cause continuity of structure and function between moms and dads and children. ”
This specific Key Strategy is all about the best way genetics together with reproduction work in organisms from most kingdoms. This calls for a full knowledge of DNA!
Here are the particular concepts you will need to understand based on Key Option 2 to the exam:
- How the construction and duplication of anatomical material result in offspring that will resemble their valuable parents, such as
- How genes can be modified through interactions when using the environment
- Where ancestral information is situated within tissues
- How look-alike works within asexually reproducing organisms
- Typically the role connected with sperms and also eggs in sexual processing
- The framework and function involving DNA inside the reproductive procedure
- Gene modification
- The types of elements that undertake the work with the cell, especially protein elements
- That the technology regarding genetic architectural allows persons to alter ancestral makeup for organisms, which include
- Frugal breeding
- Using different enzymes to cut, reproduce, and relocate DNA pieces and area them within new organisms
- Altering passed dow genes through attachment, deletion, or simply substitution of DNA
- New fields associated with healthcare geared toward fighting health problems that are the outcome of genetic modification
Key element Idea 4: Evolution
Key element Idea several states, “Individual organisms plus species modify over time. very well In other words, Essential Idea 3 or more is all about progress.
This specific idea demands students having the capacity to explain the way in which evolution will work, be able to distinguish between evolutionary change and also changes that will occur in the actual lifetime of an individual organism, and describe the very role about natural choice in inbreed evolution and then the diversity involving life on the planet today.
Here are the most crucial concepts you will have to know related to Key Option 3:
- Make clear the parts and designs of advancement, including
- The basic explanation of inbreed evolution
- Hereditary mutations, selecting, and recombination
- Natural collection
- Extinction associated with species
Key Option 4: Duplicate, Growth, as well as Aging
Important Idea 5 states, “The continuity involving life is suffered through reproduction and improvement. ” This particular key thought involves is critical to get asexual duplication and lovemaking reproduction, increase, development, growing older, and reproductive system technology.
Concepts you need to comprehend for this key element idea contain :
- How plant structur, including mankind reproduce his or her kind
- Asexuado reproduction
- Lovemaking reproduction, together with knowledge of
- Meiosis and even fertilization
- Gametes and zygotes
- The purpose of gene expression, the body’s hormones, and the atmosphere in individual reproduction in addition to development
- The structures in addition to functions with the female reproductive system system
- The particular structures and also functions of the male the reproductive system system
- Man embryonic enhancement and likely risks for the embryo because of genetic troubles and/or experience of environmental reasons
Key Suggestion 5: Homeostasis
Key Thought 5 claims, “Organisms sustain a vibrant equilibrium this sustains lifetime. ”
The central concept to this particular key plan is homeostasis . Plant structur have a assortment of homeostatic feedback processes that take care of dynamic harmony. When all these mechanisms forget, it can result in disease or perhaps death. You’ll understand how homeostasis works to successfully converse your knowledge on this Key Strategy.
Below are a few specific styles you’ll need to be competent to explain:
- Explain the standard biochemical functions in existing organisms and their importance inside maintaining “dynamic equilibrium, lunch break or homeostasis. These processes include:
- Photosynthesis, the exact structure about plant tissues, and the design of one-celled organisms
- Organically grown compounds plus chemical vigor
- Cellular respiration
- The keeping of energy around ATP compounds
- The biochemical processes for breakdown along with synthesis as well as the role involving enzymes around biochemical techniques
- How the certain shapes of digestive enzymes, hormones, radio molecules, antibodies, and other elements influence their own interactions jointly
- Demonstrate disease as a failure regarding homeostasis
- How worms, bacteria, fungi, and other organisms interfere with the usual life attributes of house plants and wildlife
- The immune system and also white white blood cells
- The function of scientific research for responding to health problems in plants and critters
- Touch processes along at the system level to the mobile phone level to be able to explain potent equilibrium in multi-celled organisms
- Discuss feedback processes that sustain homeostasis
Key Option 6: Ecology
Key Idea six states, “Plants and dogs depend on oneself and their real bodily environment. inch
This main idea demands you to be capable of articulate ways ecological techniques work, including competition somewhere between members distinct species along with within kinds, and to be aware of the concept of foodstuff chains as well as webs.
Specific styles related to ecology that you need to recognize include
- Things that limitation growth of most people and foule, including
- How power flows via ecosystems;
- What sort of atoms in addition to molecules for the Earth routine among the dwelling and non-living components of the very biosphere
- The fact that chemical features that make up the very molecules about living things move through food webs
- How readily available energy, waters, oxygen, and even minerals limit the number of plant structur a an environment can support
- The different types of romances that organisms can have, e. g. producer/consumer, predator/prey, or perhaps parasite/host
- The importance of preserving diversity connected with species and habitats
- How a living and also nonliving areas change as time passes and react to disturbances, such as
- Environmental succession
- Often the role involving climate modify and purely natural disasters with altering constant ecosystems
Key Notion 7: People Impact on air
The seventh and remaining Key Concept that is included to the Living Conditions Regents Audit states, micron Individuals decisions along with activities have tried a powerful impact on the very physical as well as living ecosystem. ”
This Key Notion is asking you to think about www.essaywriterusa.com how human activity can affect and improvements the residing environment, bringing about or perpetuating phenomena similar to pollution, deforestation, extinction of species, around the world, and degeneration of the ozone shield. This key strategy is also fundamental oriented : it suggests students to trust critically about precisely how they can really make a difference environmentally well written citizens in the world.
You’ll need to know the adhering to concepts:
- The number of interrelationships of humans with the existing and non-living environment, this includes
- The best way increased our consumption diminishes the earth’s finite resources
- How purely natural ecosystems produce basic systems that influence humans, the actual human activity alterations these operations in damaging ways
- The best way human exploitation of retraite threatens ongoing global security
- The effect of design development plus growth inside the human population around the living in addition to non-living surroundings, which includes
- How terrain use as well as pollution degrades ecosystems as well as results in some loss of variety in conditions
- Consequences associated with adding or even removing special organisms out of ecosystems
- Regarding industrialization, in particular fossil fuels as well as nuclear powers, on persons and ecosystems.
Issue Formats (With Sample Problems! )
Like we described earlier, one can find five screens on the Experiencing Environment Regents Exam derived from a mix of many choice together with open resolution questions.
Right now, we’re going to take a look at each problem type (with examples) that can help familiarize a person with the evaluation.
Multiple choice Questions
All five sections of the Existing Environment Regents exam include things like at least several multiple-choice questions. Your picked out answer per each multiple preference question should be recorded on another answer piece that will be provided with your test.
Unlike a lot of multiple-choice problems, this examination uses amounts for each solution choice instead of letters. Each and every multiple-choice question has 4 possible solutions, designated by numbers (1), (2), (3), and (4). For each various choice subject, there is solely one achievable correct answer.
On each element of the assessment, the multiple choice questions will vary in kind, but you can find two primary types of multiple choice questions over the Living Settings exam:
- Statements that you complete with appropriate answer option
- Questions you answer along with the correct response choice
These subject types also can include diagrams, passages of text, photos, or files charts that you’ll be asked to work with to determine the appropriate answer as well.
Let’s check out some examples with multiple-choice queries from the August 2019 Being Environment Regents Exam to assist in getting a sharper picture with what to expect because of this type of question on the audit!
We’ll choose a sample quiz question the fact that presents a statement that you must complete by selecting the best answer alternative:
When ever handling kitty litter, humankind can potentially be exposed to a damaging single-celled protozoan. Its primary host could be the common house cat, but it may live in man. This protozoan is an example of a
To answer this kind of question, you’ll want to use your perception of biology to determine the correct option that tidies up the heading. Specifically, this question requests you to amuse knowledge of Essential Idea half a dozen from the Located Environment Center Curriculum, that is definitely all about ecology. If you attempted to answer this unique question and also chose reply choice (3) parasite , you got the idea right!
Then, let’s focus on a sample audit question of which asks a matter that you need to reply to correctly:
A number of seaweeds contain a greater content level of iodine inside their cells than you can find in the seawater surrounding these folks. The energy essential to maintain the concentration big difference is most strongly associated with the steps of
Like the prior sample question, this one refers with a important idea from Core Curriculum: Key Option 1 . Main Idea just one asks one to demonstrate what you know about the components of residing systems, out of single cells to ecosystems, and how these interact to keep balance within the living conditions.
So , what the correct respond to this concern? You got them right if you picked (2) mitochondria!
Open Result Questions
Other type of question on the Dwelling Environment Regents Exam will be open answer. In other words, rather then being given a set of responses to choose from, you are likely to write out your own correct reply using your current knowledge of chemistry and biology.
3 of the four sections of the particular exam will comprise a variety of open-ended response concerns: Part B-2, Part H, and Section D (and Part F is most of open reply questions). The exact open reaction questions over the exam could possibly ask you to produce correct answers in one plus of the following formats applying space furnished in the assessment booklet themselves (not within the separate respond to sheet):
- Use material from a info table to set up a chart
- Provide a short answer written (often in response to a composed passage)
- Fill-in-the-blank with perfect answers
- Look over a short passing (anywhere in one to all five short paragraphs) and answer several issues in particular written result addressing two or more specific points, usually throughout paragraph application form
It means that to get your house well for these queries, it’s important you are aware the material along with can state your option in writing.
These days, here are a few song open reply questions to acquaint yourself with you in what this type of query will look like about the exam!
First, here is a sample issue that requires you to offer a short reply to in writing:
Discuss why biomass is considered a new renewable energy resource.
In the examination booklet, you happen to be given few lines to write out learn more for so why biomass is viewed a power source. Like the multiple solution questions, often the open effect questions for the exam gibe with Major Ideas from Core Curriculum. This query corresponds along with Key Plan 7, which covers the interrelationships of man with the dwelling and nonliving environment.
Using the Living Ecosystem Rating Guideline for examination scorers, down the page would be deemed acceptable responses to the question above:
- Biomass is certainly continually remaining produced by vegetation and family pets.
- More indoor plants or trees and shrubs can be produced to replace the ones used for power.
- Humans have been generating food wastes as well as garbage.
- Biomass is an power source that is speedily replaced through natural procedures.
The Existing Environment Regents Exam also incorporates fill-in-the-blank open-response questions, like here:
Photosynthesis is a process that is necessary to the coping of many organisms on Earth. Recognize two garbage necessary for photosynthesis.
________________________________ and _______________________________
For inquiries like this one, the actual exam can instruct you to be able to record your own answers direct in the blanks provided within the exam brochure.
So , exactly what do you need to know to help answer this available response query? You’ll need to know the content of which corresponds with Key Notion 5, which covers the biochemical processes of living creatures and homeostasis.
The audit Rating Guide states the fact that the following replies would be regarded acceptable replies to the query above:
- carbon dioxide/CO2
We’ve taken care of shorter inquiries and replies for the open-response questions around the exam, thus let’s finish up here through a sample subject that requires you to examine a short penetration and remedy several concerns in piece form:
A good number of humans enjoy candy, treat, and goodies. As a result of background, we have numerous tastes. This isn’t true of animals. Cats and kittens do not try to get sweets. Throughout their background, the woman family tree misplaced a gene to locate sweet styles. Most hens also lack this gene, with a few exclusions. Hummingbirds tend to be sugar junkies.
Hummingbirds started out an insect-eating ancestor. Typically the genes the fact that detect the exact savory taste of the insect life underwent improvements, making hummingbirds more very sensitive to glucose. These unique sweet-sensing passed dow genes give hummingbirds a taste for calorie-loaded flower licor. Hummingbirds truly reject particular flowers do you know nectar will not be sweet adequate!
Discuss the way in which sweet tenderness in hummingbirds has developed. With your answer, ensure that you:
- indicate the initial event responsible for the newest sweet-sensing gene
- explain how a presence with the sweet-sensing gene increased inside hummingbird society over time
- explain how the fossil record for hummingbird forefathers might be which is used to learn more about the particular evolution associated with food personal preferences in hummingbirds
Inside the exam electronic book, you’ll be supplied with approximately 15 lines to write down out an explanation in passage form this addresses all three bullets. Your company’s answer will draw upon your understanding of organic evolution, which in turn corresponds together with Key Concept 3.
The actual Rating Tutorial states that following is considered suitable responses to the present question:
Allow a single credit meant for identifying your initial event a major contributor to the new sweet-sensing gene to be a mutation/change while in the genetic program code.
Help 1 credit ratings for outlining how the occurrence of the sweet-sensing gene improved in the owl population over time. Acceptable typical reactions include, are usually not limited to:
- Birds selecting intended for sweeter ambrosia survived and produced a lot of offspring with the trait.
- Satisfying nectar supplied more electricity, increasing often the birds’ chance to survive plus
- It absolutely was an version that improved the birds’ ability to make it and recreate.
Allow 4 credit pertaining to describing that the fossil file of owl ancestors is likely to be used to know more about the progression of food stuff preferences with hummingbirds. Suitable responses include, but are not limited to:
- Changes in the style of hummingbird beaks could be accompanied. Beaks used for ingesting insects would possibly be different right from those modified to taking in nectar.
- Fossils might make it possible for scientists for additional details on the environment in which hummingbirds lived in. This would supply information about the crops and pesky insects present.
- Unique beak figures could specify different foodstuff preferences.
As you can tell, often the responses to those short passing questions are longer, a lot more in depth, plus require you to explain yourself certainly. The trick to having full credit rating on these kind of responses-beyond just being able to read through critically and also express yourself within writing-is giving an answer to all of the questions required by the timely.
In this case, typically the prompt reduces the things you need to talk about for bullet tips, namely questioning the event in which caused the exact gene, detailing how the fact that gene impacted the owl population, plus discussing precisely how fossils might help us read more about hummingbirds at present. If you touching on these kinds of three elements correctly, you’re well on your way to earning 100 % credit.
3 Suggestions for Acing the exact Living Ecosystem Regents Assessment
Now that you’re well-versed in the Residing Environment Regents Exam, listed here are our major tips for ensuring you go with high marks.
Tip 1: Pay Attention in the lecture
Corporations New York Status students exactly who take the Experiencing Environment Regents Exam may have taken an income Environments or biology course before perched for the assessment. The absolute proper way to give you powerful foundation for those knowledge you’ll pass this kind of exam would be to show up for you to class in addition to pay attention while you are there.
How come? Your Located Environment coach is required by your local state training department to train the styles and knowledge that you’ll be put into practice on if you take the Dwelling Environment Regents Exam . Paying attention in the lecture is an straightforward way to find expert advice on what you need to know through the test.
Which also a great reason to take good information in class. When considering to start your Dwelling Environment Regents review, an individual begin by rereading your lessons notes.
Tip couple of: Use Older Exams to Start Your Living Natural environment Regents Evaluate
The fresh York Say Education Division website suitably provides the means to access PDF archives of all past Living All-natural environment Regents Qualifications. Using these can be an amazing way for you to help you analysis for the analyze!
Having open, comfortable access to all of the past tests means you might have access to a wide selection of questions you might use for perform . You can actually even dispense a procedure test that will yourself while using most recently given Living Surroundings Regents Audit. Find a private place to do the job, set you an make someone’s hair curl for three a lot of time, and give good results your way with the most recent test to help you get a feeling00 how quickly you have to move through the exact exam thoughts in order to polish in time.
Remember that these are almost all real concerns from true exams implemented in prior years. These types of tests are a fantastic way to gain practical knowledge into the test before you have to take it on your own.
Suggestion 3: Discern Your Strengths and Weaknesses
As you take process exams and even review lessons materials, write down where you do well and where you struggle, together with use the fact that info to make decisions about what content to spend of course time reading before you a little bit of exam.
This tactic can also apply to types of things on the audit. Maybe that you simply a expert at giving answers to multiple alternative questions, although open reaction questions cause you to pretty restless. Knowing in which succeed and struggle will allow you to maximize the time you spend on the NYS Dwelling Environment Regents review. Expending more time doing sample available response concerns can help you feel more confident with your abilities while exam working day arrives !